Throughout the 6th Centry and towards the beginning of the 5th century, the Spartan army was composed of all Spartan citizens. During religious festivals, such as the Hyporchema and the Caryatid, women would sing, dance, race, feast, dedicate votive offerings, drive chariots in processions and weave clothing for cult images of the gods, said Pomeroy.
According to Aristotle, the Spartan military culture was actually short-sighted and ineffective. They were taught physical and military exercises as well as the basics of reading and writings.
Married Spartan women had significantly more influence and power in society than other women from other polis. According to S. Leuctra was a turning point in bringing an end to the political hegemony and military superiority of Sparta. By the 5th century BC, the helots too were used as light troops in skirmishes.
They not only played a vital role in the economy, religion, education and public matters, they were the backbone of the entire Spartan race. It is thought that these offerings were made by women who were barren, pregnant or had survived childbirth, as Artemis Orthia was associated with childbirth.
They could fightm but not as front line soldiers. Had the responsibility of the whip and could dispense punishments.
According to Xenophon, the paidonomos had to administer severe whippings to the disobedient. It is thought that they did, nevertheless, give their opinions on public matters.
Those in favour, threw the bread in as it was, while those against squeezed it hard into a ball.